Egyptian pyramids

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

Egyptian pyramids

مُساهمة من طرف زائر في الأربعاء 11 فبراير - 1:39

Egyptian pyramids



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Jump to: navigation, search



A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From right to left are the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid.





Pyramidin hieroglyphs
<table style="display: inline;" class="mw-hierotable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td valign="middle" align="center"></td>
<td valign="middle" align="center">
</td>
<td valign="middle" align="center"></td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
</table>


A view of the Pyramid of Khafre from the Sphinx.





The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
There are over 100 pyramids in Egypt. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.[1][2] [3]
The earliest known Egyptian pyramid is the Pyramid of Djoser which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry.
The best known Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built.[4]
The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Contents


[hide]


  • 1 Historic development
  • 2 Pyramid symbolism
  • 3 Number and location of pyramids

    • 3.1 Abu Rawash
    • 3.2 Giza
    • 3.3 Zawyet el-Aryan
    • 3.4 Abu Sir
    • 3.5 Saqqara
    • 3.6 Dahshur
    • 3.7 Mazghuna
    • 3.8 Lisht
    • 3.9 Meidum
    • 3.10 Hawara
    • 3.11 el-Lahun
    • 3.12 Construction dates

  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes and references

    • 5.1 References

  • 6 Further reading

    • 6.1 External links



//


Historic development



The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara.





By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those
with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas.[5][6]
The first historically documented Egyptian pyramid is attributed to the architect Imhotep, who planned what Egyptologists believe to be a tomb for the pharaoh Djoser.
Amenhotep is credited with being the first to conceive the notion of
stacking mastabas on top of each other — creating an edifice composed
of a number of "steps" that decreased in size towards its apex. The
result was the Step Pyramid of Djoser
— which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul
of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the
importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later
Egyptians.[7]
The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule. It was during this time that the most famous pyramids, those near Giza,
were built. Over time, as authority became less centralized, the
ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale decreased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well-built and often hastily constructed.
Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of Napata.
While Napatan rule was brief and ceased in 661 BC, the Egyptian
influence made an indelible impression, and during the later Sudanese
Kingdom of Meroe (approximately in the period between 300 BC–300 AD) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival,
which saw more than two hundred indigenous, but Egyptian-inspired royal
pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital city.

زائر
زائر


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Egyptian pyramids

مُساهمة من طرف زائر في الأربعاء 11 فبراير - 1:39

Pyramid symbolism



Diagram of the interior structures of the great pyramid. The inner line
indicates the pyramid's present profile, the outer line indicates the
original profile.





The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound
from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The shape is
also thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun,
and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white
limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed
from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred
to solar luminescence. For example, the formal name of the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur The Southern Shining Pyramid, and that of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is Shining.
While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments,
there is continued disagreement on the particular theological
principles that might have given rise to them. One theory is that they
were designed as a type of "resurrection machine."[8]
The Egyptians believed the dark area of the night sky around which
the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens.
One of the narrow shafts that extends from the main burial chamber
through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards
the center of this part of the sky. This suggests the pyramid may have
been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased
pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods.
All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.[9]

[edit] Number and location of pyramids


In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of pyramids,
in which he counted 67. A great many more have since been discovered.
As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.[1]
The location of Pyramid 29, which Lepsius called the "Headless Pyramid",
was lost for a second time when the structure was buried by desert
sands subsequent to Lepsius' survey. It was only rediscovered again
during an archaeological dig conducted in 2008.[10]
Many pyramids are in a poor state of preservation or buried by
desert sands. If visible at all they may appear as little more than
mounds of rubble. As a consequence archaeologists are continuing to
identify and study previously unknown pyramid structures.
The most recent pyramid to be discovered is that of Queen Sesheshet, mother of 6th Dynasty Pharaoh Teti, located at Saqqara. The discovery was announced by Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, on 11 November 2008.[11][2]
All of Egypt's pyramids are sited on the west bank of the Nile,
and most are grouped together in a number of pyramid fields. The most
important of these are listed geographically, from north to south,
below.

[edit] Abu Rawash


Main article: Abu Rawash



The largely destroyed Pyramid of Djedefre





Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid (other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one)[3]— the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, son and successor of Khufu.
Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed,
but the current archaeological consensus is that not only was it
completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the
Pyramid of Menkaure, which would have made it among the half-dozen or so largest pyramids in Egypt.
Its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source
of stone. Quarrying — which began in Roman times — has left little
apart from about 15 courses of stone superimposed upon the natural
hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core. A small adjacent
satellite pyramid is in a better state of preservation.

[edit] Giza


Main article: Giza pyramid complex



Map of Giza pyramid complex.





Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the "Pyramid of Cheops"); the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren); the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices known as "Queen's pyramids"; and the Great Sphinx.
Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original
polished limestone casing, near its apex. This pyramid appears larger
than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated
location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it
is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume.
The Giza Necropolis
has been a popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was
popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of those wonders still in existence.

[edit] Zawyet el-Aryan


See also: Zawyet el'Aryan
This site, halfway between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for two
unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is
believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa, successor to Sekhemkhet.
Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the
similar premature truncation of his step pyramid. Today it is
approximately twenty meters in height; had it been completed it is
likely to have exceeded 40.

[edit] Abu Sir


Main article: Abusir



The Pyramid of Sahure at Abu Sir, viewed from the pyramid's causeway.





There are a total of fourteen pyramids at this site, which served as
the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of
construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth
Dynasty — perhaps signaling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant
economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of
low-quality local limestone.
The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the most intact), Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai
— is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some 70
metres in height and then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by
having its steps filled in with loose masonry.

زائر
زائر


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Egyptian pyramids

مُساهمة من طرف زائر في الأربعاء 11 فبراير - 1:40

Saqqara


Main article: Saqqara



The Step Pyramid of Djoser





Major pyramids located here include the Step Pyramid of Djoser — generally identified as the world's oldest substantial monumental structure to be built of finished stone — the Pyramid of Merykare, the Pyramid of Userkaf and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway
that is one of the best-preserved in Egypt. This pyramid was also the
subject of one of the earliest known restoration attempts, conducted by
a son of Ramesses II. Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djoser's successor Sekhemkhet, known as the Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djoser's.
South of the main pyramid field at Saqqara is a second collection of
later, smaller pyramids, including those of Pepi I, Isesi, Merenre, Ibi
and Pepi II. Most of these are in a poor state of preservation.
The Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Shepseskaf
either did not share an interest in, or have the capacity to undertake
pyramid construction like his predecessors. His tomb, which is also
sited at south Saqqara was instead built as an unusually large mastaba
and offering temple complex. It is commonly known as the Mastaba of Faraoun.[12]
A previously unknown pyramid was discovered at north Saqqara in late 2008. It is believed to be the tomb of Teti's
mother, it currently stands approx 5m high, although the original
height was closer to 14m. The opening of the tomb is scheduled for
early december 2008.

[edit] Dahshur


Main article: Dahshur



Snofru's Red Pyramid





This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt
outside Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was inaccessible
due to its location within a military base, and was relatively unknown
outside archaeological circles.
The southern Pyramid of Snofru, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid
is believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid intended by its builders
to be a "true" smooth-sided pyramid from the outset; the earlier
pyramid at Meidum had smooth sides in its finished state - but it was
conceived and built as a step pyramid, before having its steps filled
in and concealed beneath a smooth outer casing.
As a true smooth-sided structure, the Bent Pyramid was only a
partial success — albeit a unique, visually imposing one; it is also
the only major Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of
its original smooth outer limestone casing intact. As such it serves as
the best contemporary example of how the ancient Egyptians intended
their pyramids to look.
Several kilometeres to the north of the Bent Pyramid is the last —
and most successful — of the three pyramids constructed during the
reign of Snofru; the Red Pyramid
is the world's first successfully completed smooth-sided pyramid. The
structure is also the third largest pyramid in Egypt — after the
pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza.
Also at Dahshur is the pyramid known as the Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III, as well as a number of small, mostly ruined subsidiary pyramids.

[edit] Mazghuna


Main article: Mazghuna


Located to the south of Dahshur, this area was used in the First Intermediate Period by several kings who constructed their pyramids out of mudbrick.

[edit] Lisht


Main article: el-Lisht



The pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht.





Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I.
The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary
pyramids. One of these subsidiary pyramids is known to be that of
Amenemhat's cousin, Khaba II.[13] The site which is in the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dahshur and Meidum, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo, is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Itjtawy (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.

[edit] Meidum


Main article: Meidum



The pyramid at Meidum.





The pyramid at Meidum is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, and is believed by some to have been started by that pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. However, that attribution is uncertain, as no record of Huni's name has been found at the site.
It was constructed as a step pyramid, and then later converted into
the first "true" smooth-sided pyramid when the steps were filled in,
and an outer casing added.
The pyramid suffered several catastrophic collapses in ancient and
mediaeval times; mediaeval Arab writers described it as having 7 steps
- although today only the three uppermost of these remain, giving the
structure its odd, tower-like appearance. The hill on which the pyramid
is situated is not a natural landscape feature — it is the small
mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of
the pyramid gave way.

زائر
زائر


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Egyptian pyramids

مُساهمة من طرف زائر في الأربعاء 11 فبراير - 1:40

Saqqara


Main article: Saqqara



The Step Pyramid of Djoser





Major pyramids located here include the Step Pyramid of Djoser — generally identified as the world's oldest substantial monumental structure to be built of finished stone — the Pyramid of Merykare, the Pyramid of Userkaf and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway
that is one of the best-preserved in Egypt. This pyramid was also the
subject of one of the earliest known restoration attempts, conducted by
a son of Ramesses II. Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djoser's successor Sekhemkhet, known as the Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djoser's.
South of the main pyramid field at Saqqara is a second collection of
later, smaller pyramids, including those of Pepi I, Isesi, Merenre, Ibi
and Pepi II. Most of these are in a poor state of preservation.
The Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Shepseskaf
either did not share an interest in, or have the capacity to undertake
pyramid construction like his predecessors. His tomb, which is also
sited at south Saqqara was instead built as an unusually large mastaba
and offering temple complex. It is commonly known as the Mastaba of Faraoun.[12]
A previously unknown pyramid was discovered at north Saqqara in late 2008. It is believed to be the tomb of Teti's
mother, it currently stands approx 5m high, although the original
height was closer to 14m. The opening of the tomb is scheduled for
early december 2008.

[edit] Dahshur


Main article: Dahshur



Snofru's Red Pyramid





This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt
outside Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was inaccessible
due to its location within a military base, and was relatively unknown
outside archaeological circles.
The southern Pyramid of Snofru, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid
is believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid intended by its builders
to be a "true" smooth-sided pyramid from the outset; the earlier
pyramid at Meidum had smooth sides in its finished state - but it was
conceived and built as a step pyramid, before having its steps filled
in and concealed beneath a smooth outer casing.
As a true smooth-sided structure, the Bent Pyramid was only a
partial success — albeit a unique, visually imposing one; it is also
the only major Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of
its original smooth outer limestone casing intact. As such it serves as
the best contemporary example of how the ancient Egyptians intended
their pyramids to look.
Several kilometeres to the north of the Bent Pyramid is the last —
and most successful — of the three pyramids constructed during the
reign of Snofru; the Red Pyramid
is the world's first successfully completed smooth-sided pyramid. The
structure is also the third largest pyramid in Egypt — after the
pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza.
Also at Dahshur is the pyramid known as the Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III, as well as a number of small, mostly ruined subsidiary pyramids.

[edit] Mazghuna


Main article: Mazghuna


Located to the south of Dahshur, this area was used in the First Intermediate Period by several kings who constructed their pyramids out of mudbrick.

[edit] Lisht


Main article: el-Lisht



The pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht.





Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I.
The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary
pyramids. One of these subsidiary pyramids is known to be that of
Amenemhat's cousin, Khaba II.[13] The site which is in the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dahshur and Meidum, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo, is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Itjtawy (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.

[edit] Meidum


Main article: Meidum



The pyramid at Meidum.





The pyramid at Meidum is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, and is believed by some to have been started by that pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. However, that attribution is uncertain, as no record of Huni's name has been found at the site.
It was constructed as a step pyramid, and then later converted into
the first "true" smooth-sided pyramid when the steps were filled in,
and an outer casing added.
The pyramid suffered several catastrophic collapses in ancient and
mediaeval times; mediaeval Arab writers described it as having 7 steps
- although today only the three uppermost of these remain, giving the
structure its odd, tower-like appearance. The hill on which the pyramid
is situated is not a natural landscape feature — it is the small
mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of
the pyramid gave way.

زائر
زائر


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة


 
صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:
لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى